Yes, adhesions tend to form within 7 days. Also endometriosis causes adhesions and was probably the type of adhesion found attached to your sigmoid colon. My guess would be that the ones attatched to your abdominal wall would be post-surgical adhesions.
It is possible to have adhesions or endo without pain. It is reported that up to 95% of patients who have abdominal surgery form adhesions, though many never experience pain or complications.
So it is possible that the first doc's reports were accurate...he knows what he means by moderate endo, but he doesn't get specific; it is also possible that after this initial laparoscopy post-surgical adhesions formed.
For the adhesion former further surgery is very risky, it may provide temporary relief, but what tends to happen subsequently is that more adhesions form and the old ones can reform.